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TMT Glossary

Popular terms of reference and definitions across the telecommunications, media and technology (TMT) sectors.

Above the fold

The upper visible part of a web page that can be seen on the screen without scrolling down.

ActiveX control

A Microsoft technology and a mini-program that is downloaded to the user's computer and executed there. ActiveX controls are used to perform similar functions to Java applets.

Address bar spoofing 

Faking a web browser's address bar with images and text so that it appears to display a legitimate URL when the browser is in fact displaying a different page entirely.

Administrative burden

The cost of administrative activities that businesses conduct solely in order to comply with legal obligations.

Advance fee fraud

Any fraud that tricks victims into paying money up front on the false hope of receiving a large windfall later. Among the variations on this type of scam are the Nigerian Letter or 419 fraud.

Advanced electronic signature

An electronic signature uniquely linked to and capable of identifying the signatory, created using means that the signatory can maintain under his sole control, and linked to the data to which it relates in such a manner that any subsequent change of the data is detectable.


Any form of representation which is made in connection with a trade, business, craft or profession in order to promote the supply or transfer of a product”


A generic term referring to a class of software that causes a victim's web browser to display pop-up advertisements and advertising banners.


Bring together on one website links to content on other websites.

Antivirus software

Software specifically designed for the detection and prevention of known viruses. You can also get more advanced packages with spyware/spam detection.

Application (software)

A program or group of programs designed for end users


A supply/value chain management term to decribe the physical capital employed, but not traded, across the supply/value chain, e.g. machines, equipment, vehicles.


Files, such as programs or documents, which are attached to an email. Attachments can also be dangerous as they may contain malware.

Audiovisual Media Services

Linear services which are traditional television services, the Internet and mobile telephone services, which "push" content to viewers, and; non-linear services, i.e. on-demand television, where viewers "pull" content from a network ("video-on-demand", for example).


he process for verifying that someone or something is who or what it claims to be. In private and public computer networks authentication is generally done with passwords.

Auto-ID or Auto-identity

Supply chain identification and other object identifcation numbers should be expressible in a form which can be automatically captured, wherever cost effective, for example by (a) laser scanning of a printed symbol (barcode); (b) radio frequency identification of a tag (RFID); or by (c) reading a smart card with a Personal Identification Number (PIN)... more

B2B Business to business

Trading between businesses

B2C Business to consumer

Trading with consumers.

B2G Business to government

Trading with governments and other public sector bodies


A generic term, which refers to a method of gaining access to a computer possibly without the owner's knowledge or consent.


Refers to making copies of data so that these additional copies may be used to restore the original after a data loss event.


This refers to the size of the data pipeline. The higher the bandwidth, the faster data can flow.

Behavioural targeting

Use of information linked through cookies to create a profile of an online user. The user is matched with a broad profile, and they are sent adverts which are likely to interest them.

Below the fold

The part of a web page that can be viewed on the screen only with scrolling down.


A management tool for comparing performance against an organisation that is widely regarded as outstanding in one or more areas, in order to improve performance.


To start up or reset a computer.

Boot password

A password that applies while a computer starts up and before any operating system can be loaded.

Bootsector virus

A boot sector virus is one that infects the first sector, i.e. the boot sector, of a floppy disk or hard drive.


A botnet (also known as a zombie army) is a number of Internet computers that, although their owners are unaware of it, have been set up to forward transmissions (including spam or viruses) to other computers on the Internet.


Also called ‘Internet bots’, refers to computers that perform tasks without human input. Increasingly used for click-fraud and other malicious purposes.


A contravention in, or failure to comply with a legal or regulatory requirement.


A computer program through which the user is able to access the web and view web sites and download web documents. Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer are the most widely used.

Browser hijacker

A generic term referring to any piece of software which, against the user's wishes and perhaps even without their knowledge, affects the functioning of their web browser.

Brute force attack

The act of attempting to crack passwords for the purpose of gaining access to a computer system by testing them against every possible arrangement of upper case and lower case letters, numbers, punctuation marks and other characters.


A failure, error or flaw in a computer program. A slang for virus.

Cell ID 

Cell identity or location from which a mobile telephony call started or in which it finished.


An electronic attestation which links signature-verification data to a person and confirms the identity of that person.

Certification service provider

Certification service provider A person who issues certificates or provides other services related to electronic signatures.

CGI - Common Gateway Interface

A specification for passing data between a web server and applications such as database programs. A CGI script is a program that utilises the CGI specification.

Cloud computing 

Computation, software, data access, and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services


Gathering all legislation on a particular topic into a single "book" (e.g. penal code).

Commercial communication 

Any communication that promotes goods, services or a person’s image within a commercial, industrial or craft activity or regulated profession.

Communications data 

Traffic, location and related data necessary to identify the subscriber or user.

Competition and antitrust 

Competition concerns two or more parties acting independently to secure the business of a third party. Anti-trust laws aim to prevent market abuse.

Competitive advantage 

The superiority gained by a firm when it can provide the same value as its competitors but at a lower price, or can charge higher prices by providing greater value through differentiation. Competitive advantage results from matching core competencies to the opportunities.


A competitive economy is one with a consistently high rate of productivity growth.


A natural person who acts outside his business

Contempt of court 

Under the UK Contempt of Court Act 1981, “the strict liability rule” means the rule of law whereby conduct may be treated as a contempt of court as tending to interfere with the course of justice in particular legal proceedings regardless of intent to do so.

Contextual marketing 

Some networks use contextual marketing. They use programs which analyse the content of publishers’ sites, and match them with adverts from companies who have chosen to link their adverts to that content.


A piece of information stored on a user’s hard drive which is attributed when they visit a specific website. It is a text file, not a program. A site can only read the information in a cookie which was written by that site.

Coordinated field 

Requirements applicable to information society service providers or information society services, regardless of whether they are of a general nature or specifically designed for them

Corporate Governance 

The system by which companies are directed and controlled. It deals largely with the relationship between the constituent parts of a company - the directors, the board (and its sub-committees) and the shareholders... more

Corporate Homicide 

Defined under the Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007. An organisation (in Scotland) is guilty of an offence if the way in which its activities are managed or organised—(a)causes a person's death, and(b)amounts to a gross breach of a relevant duty of care owed by the organisation to the deceased. In England, Wales and Northern Ireland it is known as 'Corporate Manslaughter'.

Corporate Manslaughter 

Defined under the Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007. An organisation (in England, Wales and Northern Ireland) is guilty of an offence if the way in which its activities are managed or organised—(a)causes a person's death, and(b)amounts to a gross breach of a relevant duty of care owed by the organisation to the deceased. In Scotland it is known as 'Corporate Homicide'


A malicious hacker who uses their skills to do bad things.

Critical update

A broadly released fix for a specific problem addressing a critical bug.


The science of codes and ciphers. Cryptography is used as the basis of an electronic signature, to keep electronic data confidential, or to ensure preservation of integrity of information.

CSS (cascading style sheets) 

Pre-set formatting styles for consistent application across a website.

Cyber crime (or e-crime)

The use of networked computers, or Internet technology to commit or facilitate the commission of crime... more


Wasting time at work by using the Internet.

Data controller 

The person who decides the purposes for which, and the manner in which personal information is to be processed. This may be an individual or an organisation... more

Data flood 

The act of sending so much data to a computer that its hard disk drive space is exhausted, causing it to become unresponsive or crash. An attacker may attempt this by sending the target very large email messages for example.

Data miner 

A type of spyware which gathers information from the computer on which it is installed and which sends this information back to an attacker. This information might include users' logon details or credit card information typed into website forms for example. Other data miners record users' Internet browsing habits which may be employed for legitimate marketing purposes.

Data retention 

The retaining of data, information, records and other content over a period of time in order to meet legal, regulatory, fiscal, and business archival requirements... more

Data subject 

The person whose personal information is held by a data controller.

Data, information and knowledge - Data is the numbers, words or images that have yet to be organised or analysed to answer a specific question. Information is produced through processing, manipulating and organising data to answer questions, adding to the knowledge of the receiver. Knowledge concerns what is known by a person or persons. Involves interpreting information received, adding relevance and context to clarify the insights the information contains.


A collection of independent works, data or other materials arranged in a systematic or methodical way and individually accessible by electronic or other means.

Decision (EU) 

A legal measure giving a ruling on a particular matter and for a specific (legal) person.

Deep Linking 

The practice of creating a hypertext link direct into a sub-page on another site, bypassing the main home page. See Shallow linking Digital Signature Similar to an Advanced Electronic Signature.


The act of hacking or breaking into a web server and deliberately vandalizing its contents, often so that the web pages show a derogatory, political or social message of some kind.


A statement that gives a negative impression of a person, company, group, product, government, or country. The statement is made as though it were true, when in fact, it is false. Defamation can be slander, which is made with spoken words, sounds, sign language, or gestures. Defamation in any other form, like in printed words or pictures, is libel. To be considered defamation, the claim has to be false, it has to be made as if it were true, and it has to have been communicated to people other than the entity being defamed. See Defamation Act

Denial of service attack

An attack whereby the target is deliberately prevented from providing or receiving a particular service.


A program which establishes a dial-up networking connection from a local computer to a remote computer. Diallers are often programmed to dial long distance or premium rate numbers and the user may not be aware that their connection has been modified until they receive the telephone bill.

Dictionary attack 

The act of attempting to crack passwords by testing them against a list of dictionary words.

Digital Goods

In electronic commerce, digital goods (or 'digital downloads') is a general term that is used to describe any goods that are stored, delivered and used in its electronic format. Digital goods are shipped electronically to the consumer through e-mail or download from the Internet. Examples of digital goods include e-books, music files, software, digital images, Web site templates, manuals in electronic format, and any item which can be electronically stored in a file or multiple files. See also: 'Goods and Services.

Direct Marketing 

The communication (by whatever means) of any advertising or marketing material which is directed to particular individuals. (Source Section 11 Data Protection Act 1998).

Directive (EU)

A legal measure addressed to the Member States to align national legislation.

Display Screen Equipment 

An alphanumeric or graphic display screen.

Distance Communication 

Address and un-addressed printed matter; letter; press advertising with order form; catalogue; telephone with human intervention; telephone without human intervention (automatic calling machine, audio-text); radio; videophone (telephone with screen); video-text (microcomputer and television screen) with keyboard or touch screen; electronic mail; fax; tele-shopping... more

Distributed Denial of Service Attack 

A denial of service attack launched from multiple computers against one (or relatively few) targets. The attacking computers are usually co-coordinated together, so they have a far greater effect than if the attack was launched from a single computer.

Domain hijacking 

The act of assuming or taking over a domain name, not necessarily illegally.

Domain Name 

A unique website address

Domain Name System 

The system which is associated with Internet locations. The system is hierarchical, top-level domains such as "com" being at the top of the hierarchy.


The copying of a file from a remote host computer to the requester’s local machine.

Dumpster Diving 

The act of rummaging through the rubbish thrown out by commercial businesses or private residents searching for items of value. From an IT security point of view, an attacker may find all sorts of valuable information from the likes of discarded letterheads, utility bills, old credit card receipts, printouts and reports etc. which may be of great assistance to them in a potential attack (also see ID theft).

Dynamic data 

Any information which can be attached to a certain type of content item or a page, including metadata.

Dynamic HTML 

Programming techniques that enable actions such as mouse-overs and fly-outs to be processed by the web browser without exchanging data with the web server.


Electronic Data Interchange. The means of exchanging money and entering into binding contracts electronically through a closed system of value added networks.

Electronic Business (E-business) 

Doing any form of online transaction, irrespective of organisation type, sector, volume, technology used or customer. This broad term includes EDI, use of value added (closed) networks as well as Internet transactions.

Electronic Commerce (E-commerce)

Transactions usually carried out over the Internet

Electronic invoicing (e-invoicing)

The electronic transfer and storage of invoicing information (billing and payment) between business partners (supplier and buyer).

Electronic Signature 

Data in electronic form which are attached to or logically associated with other electronic data and which serve as a method of authentication. Encryption The conversion of data, using a mathematical algorithm, into a form unauthorised users cannot read. Authorised users must be provided with a decryption key in order to unscramble the information. Different encryption strengths exist, determined by the length (in bits) of the key used. In general, the longer the key, the stronger the encryption and the more secure the data.

Email bomb 

A denial of service attack in which a user's email account is targeted by bombarding it with more email messages than it can handle, thereby preventing the acceptance and delivery of legitimate email messages. In some cases an entire email server may be targeted, thereby denying service to all the mail accounts on the server.

Email virus 

Malicious computer code sent to you as an e-mail note attachment.

Enterprise Innovation 

The implementation of a new or significantly improved product or , or process, a new marketing method, or a new organisational method in business practices, workplace organisation or external relation.

Evil twin 

A fake wireless access point or hot-spot, set up to pose as a legitimate one, usually with the purpose of stealing data from computers that connect to it in error.

Export Controls 

The prohibition or regulation of exporting goods from the United Kingdom or their shipment as stores.

File sharing

Making files available over the Internet to other users, typically music or video files (see peer to peer software and IP theft).


A program designed to monitor what is being loaded into a web browser or email program and block certain types of material.


Set of related programs located at an organisation network server that protects their private network from other network users. If an organisation allows its workers to access the Internet, it should install a firewall to prevent outsiders from accessing private date and to control what outside resources its own users have access to.


The practice of linking to a target site, and displaying the linked content within a frame when the user clicks on the link


File transfer protocol. An agreed standard which allows for the transfer over a network (such as the internet) of files from one server to another.


Fibre to the cabinet. A term used to describe the deployment of broadband to a local exchange.


Fibre to the home. A term used to describe the deployment of broadband into a home.

Gold Plating 

Transposition of EU legislation into the laws of Member States which goes beyond what the legislation requires, increasing reporting obligations, procedural requirements, or penalty regimes.

Good and Services 

Products that are sold, traded or otherwise provided to organisations or consumers can be classified as either goods, which are tangible, or services, which are intangible. Most countries measure their economies on the production and consumption of both physical goods and intangible services. See also: Digital Goods

Google hacking 

To use the features of the Google search engine to reveal sensitive data about a particular target or to identify potential targets for attack.


The slang term for performing a search on the Internet, and a common cause of employees wasting time at work.


Behaviour which causes alarm or distress


HyperText Markup Language. The basic code in which most website content is written, which tells a web browser how the content should be laid out & appear.


Links between connected hypertext. You click on a highlighted hyperlink for quick navigation to the connected hypertext.


The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers). The non-profit corporation set up in the USA to co-ordinate the management of domain names. It has a domain name dispute resolution policy.

Illegal images 

Child sexual abuse (Protection of Children Act 1978, as amended, and the Sexual Offences Act 2003); Criminally obscene adult content, including extreme sexual activity such as bestiality, necrophilia, rape and torture (Obscene Publications Act 1959 (& 1964) , and the Criminal Justice & Immigration Act 2008); Incitement to racial hatred (Race Relations Act 1976 and the Public Order Act 1986); Non-photographic child sexual abuse (Coroners and Justice Act 2009);

Information and Communications Technology

Any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems, as well as the services and applications associated with them, such as video-conferencing and distance learning.

Information Society Service 

Any service normally provided for remuneration, at a distance, by electronic means and at the individual request of a recipient of services.

Intellectual Property (IP)

Tangible and intangible assets resulting from the creations of the mind: inventions, literary and artistic works, symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce.

Internet Service Provider (ISP) 

Supplier of services to users in order that they can access the Internet. Access can be provided via modem, ISDN or private line.


A supply/value chain management term to describe products and services being traded, and their various Logistics Units, such as cases, pallets and containers – including key item characteristics, both of unique items and of types of item: prices and costs: technical specifications, product structures, bills of materials and designs.


A programming language developed by Sun Microsystems. Many websites contain mini-programs called Java applets, which are downloaded to the user's computer and executed there. These enable sophisticated browser interaction with the website to take place, for instance through games, animations, or complex menu systems.


A programming language that enables more sophisticated actions to be programmed into a web page than with HTML.

Knowledge-based Economy 

An economy that derives its primary value from knowledge and the management of knowledge


Processes for capturing, collecting and sharing explicit and tacit knowledge, including skills and competence. It includes both commercial and non-commercial activities such as research collaborations, consultancy, licensing, spin-off creation, researcher mobility, publication, etc.

Limited Partnership (LP) 

An investor in a limited partnership is liable for partnership obligations only to the extent of his investment. Limited partners are usually restricted from taking an active part in the management of the partnership's business.

Listed Company 

A company whose shares are listed on a stock exchange.

Location Data 

Data processed in an electronic communications network indicating the geographical position of the terminal equipment of a user of a public electronic communications service, including data relating to— (i) the latitude, longitude or altitude of the terminal equipment, (ii) the direction of travel of the user, or (iii) the time the location information was recorded.

Master data 

Information that is key to the operation of business. It may include data about customers, products, employees, materials, suppliers, etc. which often turns out to be non-transactional in nature.

Means of Distance Communication

Any method to conclude a contract between a supplier and consumer without being in each other’s presence. Methods include catalogue; press advertising with order form; telephone with and without human intervention (automatic calling machine, audio-text); videophone; electronic mail; video text; facsimile and television.


Keywords inserted in the 'Meta' section of a website. The contents of this section are not displayed in normal browsing, but can easily be viewed by using the web browser in 'view source' mode. Search engines use metatags to rank their results of searches.

Money Laundering 

Exchanging money or assets that were obtained criminally for money or other assets that are 'clean'. The clean money or assets don't have an obvious link with any criminal activity. Money laundering also includes money that's used to fund terrorism, however it's obtained.

Net Neutrality 

The principle that all web data/traffic is equal and network owners don't prioritise delivery of certain data at the expense of other content.

Network and information security 

The ability of a network or an information system to resist accidental events or malicious actions that compromise its availability, authenticity, integrity and confidentiality.

Non-targeted Marketing 

Networks which aren’t using targeting rotate random adverts around different sites, so they aren’t necessarily relevant to the publisher or the user.


The process by which data controllers register their details on the statutory register maintained by the Information Commissioner. They must register the types of information they hold, and the purposes for which they hold it.

Operator of a Means of Communication 

Any public or private person whose business involves making one or more means of distance communication available to suppliers.


A terms relating to supply/value chain management which includes: i customers/buyers; ii suppliers/sellers; iii agents, such as transporters and financial institutions; iv authorities, such as government departments and agencies, and inspection bodies; v individuals/teams, including employees, citizens, patients, end users and consumers.

Pay Per Click (PPC) 

An Internet advertising model for use on websites in which advertisers pay their host only when their ad is clicked. With search engines, advertisers typically bid on keyword phrases relevant to their target market. Content sites commonly charge a fixed price per click rather than use a bidding system. PERL (Practical Extraction & Sort Language) A programming language often used to write CGI scripts.

Personal Data 

Information relating to a living individual which will enable a data controller to identify him directly or in conjunction with other information held, (or likely to be held) Personal data can also include expressions of opinions about the person, or indications of intent towards them.

Process Management 

The application of knowledge, skills, tools, techniques and systems to define and improve processes, in order to meet customer requirements profitably.


A supply/value chain management term to describe methods, recipes, diagnostics and treatments by which decisions are taken and work is done.


Obtaining, recording, holding or carrying out any operation on data.

Public Communications Provider 

A provider of a public electronic communications network or of a public electronic communications service.

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)

A type of cryptography (see Encryption) that uses 2 distinct, but related keys. One key locks a document, and a separate key unlocks it. The organisation’s public key is held by a trusted third party which is accessed by a 3rd party, when appropriate.

Published Harmonised European Standards 

A specific subset of European Standards (EN, produced by CEN and available from the national standards institutes)

Sorry, no fancy words here yet!

Records management (RM) 

The practice of maintaining the records of an organization from the time they are created up to their eventual disposal. This may include classifying, storing, securing, and destruction (or in some cases, archival preservation) of records.

Regulation (EU) 

A legal measure that takes immediate effect in all the Member States in the same way as a national instrument, without any further action by the national authority.

Resource Management 

The effective deployment for an organisation's resources when they are needed. Such resources may include financial resources, inventory, human skills, production resources, or information technology.


A general term that is used to describe a system that transmits the identity (in the form of a unique serial number) of an object wirelessly, using radio waves. This is sometimes referred to as contactless technology and a typical RFID system is made up of three components - tags, readers and the host computer system Tags An RFID tag is a tiny radio device that is also referred to as a transponder, smart tag, smart label or radio barcode. The tag comprises of a simple silicon microchip (typically less than half a millimetre in size) attached to a small flat aerial and mounted on a substrate. The whole device can then be encapsulated in different materials (such as plastic) dependent upon its intended usage. The finished tag can be attached to an object, typically an item, box or pallet and read remotely to ascertain its identity, position or state Readers The reader, sometimes called an interrogator or scanner, sends and receives RF data to and from the tag via antennas. A reader may have multiple antennas that are responsible for sending and receiving radio waves Host Computer The data acquired by the readers is then passed to a host computer, which may run specialist RFID software or middleware to filter the data and route it to the correct application, to be processed into useful information

Search Engine 

Software used to locate specific reference to something on the web. Well-known search engines include Google, Bing, Altavista and Yahoo. Commercial websites aim to register with all the well-known search engines.


Computers that store and provide access to computer software and data. The server may store materials supplied by others, such as web pages.

Service Provider

Any person providing an information society service.

Shallow linking

Linking to home pages. See also Deep Linking


A person who holds a signature-creation device and acts either on his own behalf or on behalf of the person he represents.

Signature-creation Device 

Configured software/hardware used to implement signature-creation data.

Signature-verification Data 

Data (including, but not limited to, codes or public cryptographic keys) which are used for the purpose of verifying an electronic signature.

Signature-verification Device 

Configured software or hardware used to implement the signature-verification data.

SMS (Short message service)

The system of text messaging on mobile phones.

Social networking 

The use of dedicated websites and applications to communicate informally with other users, or to find people with similar interests to oneself, such as friendship, kinship, common interest, financial exchange, dislike, sexual relationships, or relationships of beliefs, knowledge or prestige.


A computer program or programs and, where appropriate, associated documentation. Package software which is generally mass produced and relatively inexpensive, such as Microsoft Word. Applications software or applications programs. Computer programs designed to perform a particular function such as word-processing, payroll, accounting and so on.


Unsolicited mail on the Internet


The host site uses an automated software robot (spider) to visit the target sites and collect information to create the links.

Structured manual records 

Information relating to individuals that is not processed by means of equipment operating automatically in response to instructions given for that purpose. Instead, the information is structured - either by reference to individuals or by reference to criteria relating to individuals - in such a way that specific details relating to a particular individual are readily accessible.

Supply and Demand 

The most fundamental concept of economics and the backbone of a market economy. Demand refers to how much (quantity) of a product or service is required by buyers. The quantity demanded is the amount of a product people are willing to buy at a certain price; the relationship between price and quantity demanded is known as the demand relationship. Supply represents how much the market can offer. The quantity supplied refers to the amount of a certain good producers are willing to supply when receiving a certain price. The correlation between price and how much of a good or service is supplied to the market is known as the supply relationship. Price, therefore, is a reflection of supply and demand.

Supply chain 

A system of organizations, people, technology, activities, information and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer

The Internet

A global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies.

TLD (Top-level domain)

The names at the top of the domain name system hierarchy, e.g. ".com" and ".net". Country code top-level domains (CCTLD's) are the two letter domains assigned to different countries e.g. "uk".

Traffic data 

Data processed for the purpose of the conveyance of a communication on an electronic communications network or for the billing in respect of that communication and includes data relating to the routing, duration or time of a communication.

Trojan horse 

A program in which malicious code is contained in apparently harmless programming.

Tweet (noun)

A message posted via Twitter containing 140 characters or less.

Tweet (verb) 

Tweet, tweeting, tweeted. The act of posting a message through a Tweet.

Ultra vires

Beyond the powers. Term relating generally to the excess of legal powers or authority, and a common challenge across government departments wishing to share data

URL (Uniform resource locator) 

The web address of a website or of a page within the website.A Virus is software used to infect a computer and is usually buried within the code of another program. Once the program is executed, the virus is activated and attaches copies of itself to other programs in the system.

User ID

A unique identifier allocated to persons when they subscribe to or register with an Internet access service or Internet communications service.

Value chain 

A concept from business management that was first described and popularized by Michael Porter in 'Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance, 1985. Similar to supply and demand chain - a system of organizations, people, technology, activities, information and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer


The disclosure by a person, usually an employee in a government agency or private enterprise, to the public or to those in authority, of mismanagement, corruption, illegality, or some other wrongdoing.


A disreputable version of metatagging, wordstuffing consists of hiding words (such as competitors' names) in the body of the site. This has a similar effect to metatags on search engine rankings

Working days 

All days other than Saturdays, Sundays and public holidays.

WWW (World wide web or the web) 

All the graphic and text material stored on computers connected to the Internet via hypertext links.

XML (Extended markup language)

A set of text markup standards that enable not only the appearance, but also the nature, of the website content to be interpreted by a web browser. Use of XML requires the preparation of a document type definition or a schema to enable the markup tags to be correctly interpreted.

Sorry, no fancy words here yet!

Sorry, no fancy words here yet!